There are many theories about the causes or underlying causes of fibromyalgia. These theories blame everything from alterations of brain chemistry to sleep disorders, or to trigger points. No theory has been proven or even widely accepted. However, some physiological abnormalities have been detected which justify some therapeutic approaches.

Research suggests fibromyalgia may be the result of:

Variable levels of trauma (trigger) can precipitate fibromyalgia in patients: any kind of accident, mild to severe (especially whiplash injuries), any type of surgery, even caesarean and dental interventions. All sources of pain will keep up or aggravate fibromyalgia.  

 ♦ Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction (click for more)

 ♦ Emotional/physical/mental stress

 ♦ Low thyroid function
Recent studies show that over 50% of FMS patients have low thyroid function

  Low serotonin states
All of the antidepressants [tricyclics (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)] have been tried in the attempt to increase the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine which have been found decreased in many fibromyalgics.

  Adrenal dysfunction

  Endocrine disorders, including estrogen dominance

 ♦ All kind of chronic viral infections (EBV, CMV, enterovirus), mycoplasma,

and bacterial infections

  Temporomaxillar joint disorder (TMJ) within Costen's syndrome or S.A.D.A.M. syndrome

  Sleep disorders (click for more)

The truth is we really don't know for sure what causes fibromyalgia. Been a genetic disease, the triggers that jump-start the illness appear more to reveal the symptoms than to be its fundamental cause. Although it is common to blame a physical or a psychological trauma, an infection, or some illness for starting FMS, probably the disease would have begun even without this traumatic event or illness.

It is difficult to determine whether these imbalances, dysfunctions, or disorders are the cause or the consequence of FMS.


Multiple biological studies give us a large picture of the damage in fibromyalgia.

Scientists have reported significantly low levels of growth hormone; insulin-like growth factor IGF-1; vitamin K, serotonin; free ionic calcium; calcitonin; free urinary cortisol; certain amino acids; neuropeptide Y; T cells counts; various cytokines and chemokines.

On the other hand, there are higher levels of certain factors such us: prolactine; substance P; angiotensin converting enzyme; thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); various cytokines and chemokines; and in one study, hyaluronic acid.

Skin biopsies have shown an excess of cytokines and immunoglobulin G in the dermis.

It can be seen how many different tissues and systems must be affected to alter so many laboratory results.

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